The pastures by the river sandbanks. |
O.N. á + O.N. meir + O.N. saetr.
The intrusive letter 'b' does not appear until the late 15th century and has no meaningful significance.
The clearing where apple trees grow. |
O.E. aeppel/O.N. epli + O.N. thveit.
The clearing where the hermit lives. |
O.E. ermite + O.N. thveit.
Arni's hut. |
O.N. personal name Arni + O.N. búth.
The headland where ash trees grow. |
O.N. eski (O.E. aesc) + O.N. nes.
The O.E. aesc has a pronunciation much closer to the modern 'ash' than the O.N. eski.
The farmstead by a tree. |
O.E. beam + O.E. tün.
The stream where the hermit lives. |
O.N. bekkr + O.E. ermite.
Aldgyth's homestead. |
O.N. bú + O.F. feminine name, Aldgyth.
The shieling by the birch trees. |
O.N. birki + O.N. erg.
The ridge with the birch trees. |
O.N. birki + O.N. hryggr.
The dark wood. |
This district was at one time thickly forested. O.N. blá + O.N. vithr.
The bend in the valley. |
M.E. bouzht (O.E. boga).
The angle in the valley at the junction of the River Esk and Whillan Beck. The 1587 version leaves open the possibility that the Northern dialect word 'bought', a sheepfold, might also be considered here.
The dwelling house.|
The herdsman's hut. |
Originally a dairy farm on the large Colton estate.
O.N. búth. Bouthe 1336.
The bull's headland. |
O.E. bula + O.N. nes.
Bowness on Soiway has quite a different origin - from O.E. boga + naess /O.N. bogi + nes, the bow-shaped headland.
The wide clearing. |
O.N. breithr + O.N. thveit.
The burnt wood. |
O.E. brende + O.E. wudu.
Ulfketil's huts. |
O.N. búthir (plural of O.N. búth) + O.N. personal name, Ulfketil, abbreviated to Ulfkil. The name Ulfketil was fairly common in the Lake District until the 14th century.
The cold stream. |
O.E. cald + O.N. bekkr.
The sandbank by the rocky ground. |
O.N. kartr + O.N. melr.
The village lies by the River Eea with a rocky ridge to the east.
The fort on the ridge. |
O.E. castel (from Latin castellum) + O.N. hyrggr.
No trace of any fortification has so far been found.
The path over the stepping stones or over a bridge made
of stones (over the River Brathay). |
'Clappers' are large fiat stones or planks resting on stones to form a rough type of bridge; 'gate' is O.N. gata, a pathway.
The stream where the woodcock play. |
'Cock' in local place-names usually refers to the woodcock. The second element 'ley' is O.N. leikr, to play, and probably refers to the mating dance of these birds.
The wood where charcoal is burned. |
O.E. col + O.N. vithr.
The king's farm. |
O.E. cyning/O.N. konungr + O.E. tün.
Coningeston c.1 160.
The clearing with the cross. |
O.N. kross + O.N. thveit
The trickling brook. |
A British river-name probably derived from Welsh 'deigr' or Br. 'dacru' , a teardrop.
The village is named after the stream.
The valley with the enclosed pasture or farmstead. |
O.N. dalr + O.N. garthr.
Before the 16th century, Dalegarth was known as Austhwaite meaning 'Afaster's clearing' from O.N. personal name, Afaster + O.N. thveit.
The corner of land overgrown with docks or sorrel. |
O.E. docce + O.N. vrá .
The place of portage: i.e. the place where boats had to be carried
or dragged over an unnavigable stretch of water - here the River Irt.|
O.N. drag or dreg.
|Egremont||A Norman-French name recorded early in the 12th century shortly after the Norman settlement in Cumbria. It seems likely that the castle was named after Aigremont in Normandy with possibly a reference to the prominent knoll on which it was built.|
Eanbald's farmstead. |
O.E. personal name, Eanbald + O.E. tün.
The pass where the goats go. |
O.N. geit + O.N. skarth.
The clearing where snares are set. |
O.N. gudri + O.N. thveit.
The reedy glen. |
Welsh glyn + Welsh cawn.
The glen overgrown with bracken. |
Welsh glyn + Welsh rhedyn.
The goose ford. |
O.E. gös + O.E. ford.
Goseford c. 1150.
The change from 'ford' to 'forth' is fairly common in the northern counties.
The place by the River Creik (a tributary stream joining the
River Petteril). |
O.E. stoc may mean an enclosure, a building or a residence.
Castle of Graystok 1489.
The valley of the hart. |
O.E. heorot + O.E. höp.
Hertes hope c.1184.
The hill where oats are grown. |
O.N. hafri + O.N. hryggr
The clearing where oats are grown. |
O.N. hafri + O.N. thveit.
Haukr's shieling. |
O.N. personal name, Haukr + O.N. saetr.
The hillside where ash trees grow. |
O.N. eski + O.E. heafod.
The word 'Newmarket' was added at a later date, but it is not known when a market was established here.
The farmstead on the hill. |
O.N. haugr + O.E. tün.
The meadows or outlying pastures. |
The Inges 1546.
The Irishman's farm. O.N. |
Iri + O.N. býr.
'Irishman' probably referred to a Norse settler who had migrated from Ireland.
The farmstead by the River Irt. |
Irt + O.E. tün (see under River Irt).
|Kendal||Formerly known as 'Kirkby Kendal' - 'the village with a
church in the valley of the River Kent.' |
O.N. kirkja + O.N. býr + O.N. dalr (see River Kent).
Cherkaby Kendale c.1095.
The cheese farm. |
O.E. cëse + O.E. wíc.
The Northman's clearing (Northman = Norseman). |
O.N. personal name + O.N. thveit.
The name Northman survived until the 14th century and was replaced by Norman.
The chief or main ford (over the River Eamont). |
Welsh 'pen' (in the sense of chief) + Welsh 'rhyd'.
(This interpretation accepts the difficulty that the crossing of the Eamont is at least a mile from Penrith, but the other meaning of 'pen', a hill, does not help to meet this geographical point.).
This may have the same meaning as Penrith with a
diminutive of 'rhyd' - redoc - as the second element. |
A possible alternative is that 'pen' here is used in the sense of 'a hill' and that the second element is Welsh 'rhuddawc', red, with an implied reference to the reddish soil in this vicinity.
This was formerly known as Pool How, the hill by the
pool or stream. |
O.E. pol/O.N. pollr + O.N. haugr.
The harlot's hut. |
O.E. portcwene + O.N. skali.
Porqeneschal c.1 160.
The land given to or belonging to a man named Glas.|
The ravine where horses go. |
O.N. hross + O.N. gil.
Rosse gill c.1195.
The clearing with the heap of stones. |
O.N. hreysi + O.N. thveit.
The rough clearing. |
O.E. rüh + O.N. thveit.
The valley where rye is grown. |
O.E. ryge/O.N. rugr + O.N. dalr/O.E. dael.
The gill (or ravine) where the upland pastures are. |
O.N. saetr + O.N. gil.
The sandy inlet. |
O.N. sand + O.N. vík.
The bridge by the sandy farmstead. |
O.E. sand + O.E. tün.
The 'bridge' appears in the 17th century. Not far from Santon is the only sandpit in the area which produces silver sand.
The clearing for the summer pastures. |
O.N. saetr + O.N. thveit.
The muddy places. |
O.N. saurar (plural).
Near and Far Sawrey lie in a small valley between Esthwaite Water and Lake Windermere, a low-lying area which may well have been especially wet at one time.
The clearing among the sedges. |
O.N. sef + O.N. thveit.
Either: the summer pastures among the alder bushes, O.N.
alor + O.N. saetr; |
or Olvar's summer shieling, O.N. personal name + O.N. saetr.
The heap of stones (probably the ruins of a Stone Circle). |
The additional 'S' in front of the 'h ' of the early form 'Hep' is an unusual linguistic development which may also be found in the name Shoulthwaite.
The clearing where the (mill)wheel stands. |
O.N. hjól + O.N. thveit.
The mill was probably built on Naddle Beck.
This was originally 'Schelwath' which means 'the noisy ford',
probably referring to the waterfall near to a crossing of the River
Brathay. When the bridge was built the ford or 'wath' was forgotten
and the name assumed its present form. |
O.N. skjallr + O.N. vath.
The waterfall is now known as Skelwith Force: O.N. fors.
The smooth or level clearing. |
O.E. smethe + O.N.thveit.
The enclosure where snares are set. |
The first element is the dialect word 'snittle', a snare, usually of the noose type; + O.N. garthr.
No early forms are available, but it is possible that a reference is
intended to the steep rise in the road at this point. If so, the derivation
could be the O.E. staeger, to climb, from which the word 'stair'
This is probably derived from O.N. stong, a post, usually
indicating a boundary mark or the limits of a measured piece of land.
The first element is O.N. stong, apost usually indicating a boundary mark.|
The second element is O.N. rá, a boundary mark, thus giving the meaning 'a post which marks a specific boundary'.
The woodland clearing where staves are found.|
O.E. staef + O.E. leah.
The stony clearing. |
O.N. steinn + O.N. thveit.
The bank of the river (Irt). |
Strand of Irt 1578.
The summer pasture or shieling where pigs are kept. |
O.N. svin + O.N. saetr.
The element 'sate' in the early form (derived from O.N. saetr) has been replaced by 'side' in the modern name, cf. Ambleside.
The clearing where reeds for thatching grow. |
O.N. thak + O.N. thveit.
The giant's pool. |
O.N. thurs/O.E. thyrs + M.E. pottel O.N. pot.
The additional 'l' may have developed by association with Thirlmere nearby which has quite a different origin (see Thirlmere).
The clearing with the thombushes.|
O.N. thorn + O.N. thveit.
The thrall's spring. |
O.N. thraell + O.N. kelda.
The term 'thrall' (serf or slave) seems to have been used by the Norse settlers to describe the native Britons.
The clearing by Tilli's fort. |
O.E. personal name + O.E. burh + O.N. thveit.
Slight remains of an early stronghold may still be seen here.
Several interpretations of this name have been put forward, all
based on the same Norse origins. |
(i) The shieling with a turf roof
(ii) the shieling where peat is cut or stacked
(iii) Torfi's shieling.
O.N. torf (or O.N. personal name, Torfi) + O.N. erg.
The trout stream. |
O.E. trillit + O.N. bekkr.
The valley of the wolves. |
O.N. úlfr + O.N. dalr.
The place where the wolves play. |
O.N. úlfr + O.N. leikr.
The wolf's hill. |
O.N. úlfr + O.N. haugr.
The clearing haunted by wolves. |
O.N. úlfr + O.N. thveit.
Wulfhere's or Ulfr's farmstead. |
O.E. or O.N. personal name + O.E. tün.
The cultivated field with a dwellinghouse. |
O.E. hüs + O.E. aecer.
An acre was a piece of cultivated land of varying size before it became a precise measurement (with local varia- tions) by The Statute for Measuring Land of 1284.
No entirely satisfactory explanation of this name has so far
been suggested. Early forms vary so widely as to be of little guidance.
The most acceptable suggestions are: |
(i) That the first two elements are derived from O.N. vatn and O.N. endi with the final element possibly derived from O.N. hlatha. This would give a meaning of 'the barn at the end of the lake'. However, this is regarded by many as lin- guistically very dubious.
(ii) That it is derived from a British personal name such as 'Gwenddoleu' with O.N. vatn added as the first element at a later date, meaning 'Gwenddoleu's lake'. To the newly arrived Norse settlers such an unfamiliar personal name would inevitably lead to strange contortions as they attempted to pronounce it and this may account for the version which appeared in 1211 - 'Wathenthendelan'.
The little hill where wethers graze. |
Welsh meloc + O.E. wether.
The valley where willow trees grow. |
O.E. withig + O.E. botm.
The second element was changed to 'burn' in the 17th century.
The valley where willow trees grow. |
O.E. withig + O.E. höp.
The flat or level woodland. |
O.E. efn + O.E. wudu, later changed to O.N. jafn + O.N. vithr.
Yafnewid c.1245. (This is Ekwall's explanation of a complex name in which the element 'wath' (a ford) is obviously inappropriate and must be a later change totally inconsistent with the early forms of the name.).